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第十七章  量子物理
文章来源:本站原创   点击数:4965   更新时间:2008/2/25 15:04:12

5.能量量子化(正文取消)

给定频率 的谐振子可以具有任意连续的能量值,而按照普朗克的假设,频率为 的谐振子,其能量只能取 等分立值。

(取消)

6.爱因斯坦的光量子假设(正文P7

1905年爱因斯坦对光的本性提出了新的理论,他认为,光束可以看成是由微粒子构成的粒子流,这些粒子叫做光量子,以后就称为光子,在真空中,每个光子都以光速 运动,对于频率为 的光束,光子的能量为

式中 为普朗克常量,

(P7) In 1905 Einstein pointed out the new theory of the nature of light,He thought light can be regarded as a kind of particle.The particle was called light quantum.It is called photon

In vacuum each photon moves with light speed

About a beam of light with frequency ,the energy of the photon is  where  is Planck s constant.17-6

8.康普顿效应的发现 (正文P12

康普顿效应的发现,以及理论分析和实验结果的一致,不仅有力地证实了光子学说的正确性,同时也证实了在微观粒子的相互作用过程中,同样严格地遵守能量守恒定律和动量守恒定律。

(P12) The find of Compton effect and the coherence of theoretical analysy and experimental result not only convincingly veified that the photon theory was right,but also veified that the conservation of energy and the law of conservation particles would similarly observe the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of momentum with vigour when they act on each other17-8

9.卢瑟福原子模型(正文14

卢瑟福根据对 粒子散射实验结果分析于1911年提出原子的有核模型或称原子的行星模型,他认为,原子的中心有一带正电的原子核,它几乎集中了原子的全部质量,电子围绕这个核旋转,核的尺寸与整个原子相比是很小的。

P14 The nuclear model of the atom is also called planetary model of the atom.There is a nucleus with positive charges at the centre of the atom.The nucleus almost carries the whole mass of the atom.Electrons move around the nucleus. compared with the whole atom, the size of the nucleus is very small.17-9

10.玻尔假设 (正文P15

玻尔理论三条假设

l)电子在原子中,可以在一些特定的圆轨道上运动而不辐射电磁波,这时原子处于稳定状态(简称定态),并具有一定的能量。

2)电子以速度 在半径为 的圆周上绕核运动时,只有电子的角动量L等于 的整数倍的那些轨道才是稳定的,即

                                           17-10

式中 为普朗克常量, 叫做主量子数,式(17-10)叫做量子化条件,也叫量子条件。

3)当原子从高能量的定态跃迁到低能量的定态,亦即电子从高能量 的轨道跃迁到低能量 轨道上时,要发射频率为 的光子,且

此式叫做频率条件

P15 (1)electron of the atom may not radiate electromagnetic waves when they move in some given circular orbits. Then the atom is in stable state (stationary state) with corresponding energy (2)when electrons more with speed  in the circular or bit with radius  around the nucleus.Only the orbit in which the angular momentum of the electron is an integer multiple of  are stable.n is called principal quantum number.The equation(17-10)is called quantization condition.

(3)When the electron falls from the stationary state with higher energy to that with lower energy.That is ,the electron falls from the orbit with higher energy  to that with lower energy.That is ,the electron falls from the orbit with higher energy  to that with lower energy ,it would emit a photon whose frequency  would satisfy the relation the equation is called the condition of frequency.17-10

11.德布罗意假设(正文P22

一个质量 以速度 作匀速运动的实物粒子,既具有以能量E和动量P所描述的粒子性,也具有以频率 和波长 所描述的波动性,这种波叫做德布罗意波,或物质波。

An object particle of mass m in moving uniformly with speed  not only is a particle described by the energy  and the momentum ,but also is wave described by the frequency  and the wavelength .17-11

12.德布罗意波的统计意义(正文取消)

普遍地说,在某处德布罗意波的强度与粒子在该处邻近出现的概率成正比,这就是德布罗意波的统计解释。

P22 Generally speaking,the intensity of de Broglie wave at any place is directly proportional to the probability the particle close to the place.This is the statistical explaination of de Broglie wave17-12

13.不确定关系(正文P24

不确定关系是海森伯于1927年提出的,这个关系明确指出,对微观粒子来说,企图同时确定其位置和动量是没有意义的,粒子坐标不确定量和动量不确定定量的乘积不能小于作用量子 ,这是微观粒子波粒二象性的必然表现。

P24 The uncertainty relation was formulated by Hesisenberg in 1927.The relation clearly indicates that there is no point in measuring the position of a microcosmic particle and its momentum simultaneously.The product of the probable error in measuring the position and the probable error in measuring the momentum can’t be smaller than working quantum .This is the necessary show of the wave-particle dualism of the microcosmic particle.17-13

14.波函数(正文P27

薛定谔认为像电子、中子、质子等这类具有波粒二象性的微观粒子,也可像声波或光波那样用波函数来描述它们的波动性,但是波函数中的频率和能量的关系、波长和动量的关系,应如同光的二象性关系那样,遵从德布罗意提出的物质波关系。

P27 Schodinger thought the undodatory property of the kind of microcosmic particles,which have wave-particle dualism such as electron,neutron cmd proton,can be described by the wave function similar to sound wave and light wave.But the relation of the frequency and the energy of the wave function and that of the wavelength and the momentum are similar to that of the dualism of light.They observe the relation of matter wave advanced by de Broglie.17-14

15.波函数的统计意义(正文P28

在空间某处波函数的二次方跟粒子在该处出现的概率成正比,这就是波函数的统计意义。

P28 The square of the wave function at any place is directly proportional to the probability of finding the particle at the place.This is the statistical explaination of the wave function.17-15
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