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第十五章 波动光学
文章来源:本站原创   点击数:5441   更新时间:2008/2/25 15:03:32

2.光波的相位突变(半波损失)(正文P4

进一步实验表明,光从光速较大(折射率较小)的介质射向光速较小(折射率较大)的介质时,反射光的相位较之入射光的相位跃变了 。由于这一相位跃变相当于在反射光与入射光之间附加了半个波长( )的波程差,故常称作半波损失。

P4 The further experiments prove that When light reaches the interface from a medium in which the light speed is larger(the refractive index is smaller)to a medium in which the light speed is small(the refractive index is lager)the reflected light will have a phase change of  to the incident wave,Because the effect which the phase change creates is equivalent to adding half a wavelength( )between the reflected light and the incident light,the fact is usually called“half-wave loss”.15-2

3.惠更斯——非涅耳原理(正文P15

非涅耳根据波的叠加和干涉原理,提出了“子波相干叠加”的概念,从而对惠更斯原理(参阅第14-4节)作了物理性的补充,他认为,从同一波面上各点发出的子波是相干波。在传播到空间某一点时,各子波进行相干叠加的结果,决定了该处的波振幅,这个发展了的惠更斯原理,叫做惠更斯—非涅耳原理。

P15 Fresenl advanced the concept that the wavelets are coherent and they overlap according to the principle of superposition and interference for waves.So he made a physical supplement to Huygens principle(confer14-4)

He thought the wavelets from each point on a wave surface are coherent waves.When they encounter at appoint ,these coherent wavelets will overlap.So the amplitude of wave at this point is determined.This developed Huygens principle is called Huygens-Fresnal principle15-3

4.单缝衍射的明暗条纹(正文P18

当衍射角 适合

时,点 处为暗条纹(中心),对应于 …分别叫做第一级暗条纹、第二级暗条纹……式中正、负号表示条纹对称分布于中央明纹的两侧。显然,两侧第一级暗纹之间的距离,即为中央明纹的宽度,而当衍射角 适合。

                               15-20

时,为明条纹(中心),对应于 分别叫第一级明条纹,第二级明条纹……应当指出,上面两式均不包括 的情形。

P18When the angle of diffraction  is satisfied with

there is (the centre of )a dark fringe at Q.The fringes corresponding to are individually called the first-order dark fringe the second-order dark fringe,The sign of plus and minus in the equation resperents that the fringes distribute symmetrically on the two sides of the central bright fringe.Obviously the distance between the two first-order dark fringes is the width of the central birght fringe.

While the angle of diffraction  is satisfied with

there is (the centre of )a bright fringe.The fringes corresponding to are individually called the first-order bright fringe.the sedand-order bright fringe.15-4

5.瑞利条件(正文P21

当两物点刚好能被分辨,两衍射图样重叠部分的中心处的光强,约为单个衍射图样的中央最大光强的80%。通常把这种情形作为两物点刚好能被人眼或光学仪器所分辨的临界情形。这一判定能否分辨的准则叫瑞利(Rayleigh)判据。而这一临界情况下两个物点 对透镜光心的张角 叫做最小分辨角。

P21When two object points can just be distinguished,the intensity of the centre of the over-lapping diffraction pattern is approximately percent 80 of that of the central diffraction pattern by a single-slit.This situation is usually regarded as the critical situation in which two object points are just distinguished by our eyes or optical instruments.This shandard by which we decide whether sth.Can be distinguished is called Rayleigh criterion.In the critical situation,the angle

from the optical center of the lens outward the two object points  and  are is called minimum distinguishable angle15-5

6.光栅衍射

对光栅中每一条透光缝,由于衍射,都将在屏幕上呈现衍射图样,而由于各缝射出的衍射光都是相干光,所以还会产生缝与缝间的干涉效应,因此,光栅的衍射条纹是衍射和干涉的总效果。

P22 Grating diffraction pattern is the composition of diffraction interference.15-6

9.布儒斯特定律(正文P30

当入射角 满足

                                                 15-26

时,反射光中就只有垂直于入射面的光振动,而没有平行于入射面的光振动,这时反射光为偏振光,而折射光仍为部分偏振光,上式是叫做布儒斯特定律, 叫做起偏角。

P30 When the angle  of incidence is satisfied with

the reflected light consists only of components perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

Then the reflected light is linearly polarized light.The light is still partially polarize light.15-9
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