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第十二章 电磁感应
文章来源:本站原创   点击数:4838   更新时间:2008/2/25 15:00:36

1.电磁感应现象(1 VM12-1

将线圈两端和一电流计G连成一闭合回路,若将一条形磁铁插入线圈,电流计将发生偏转,若条形磁铁静止时,电流计指针又回到原点,若将条形磁铁从线圈中拔出,电流计的指针发生相反方向偏转。

VM12-1 Connect a coil and a galvanometer to form a closed circuit. When a magnet is being pushed into the coil, the pointer of the galvanometer deflects. The pointer returns to zero as soon as the motion of the magnet stops when the magnet is being pulled out, the pointer deflects to the opposite direction.(12-1)

2.电磁感应现象(2 WM12-2

线圈AB绕在一环形铁心上,B与电键K和电源相接,A接有电流计。在电键K闭合和打开的瞬时,与线圈A连接的电流计的指针发生偏转,但两种情况下电流的流向相反。

VM12-2

Coil A and B are winded around a circular iron core. B is connected to a switch K and to a battery. A is connected to a galvanometer. When the switch K is closed or opened, the galvanometer momentarily deflects, but in the two situations the currents are in the opposite direction.(12-2)

3.电磁感应定律(正文P2

当穿过闭合回路所围面积的磁通量发生变化时,不论这种变化是什么原因引起的,回路中都会建立起感应电动势,且此感应电动势正比于磁通量对时间变化率的负值。

P2 when the magnetic flux through the closed circuit is changing, whatever is the reason that produced it, an induced emf appears in the circuit. The induced emf is proportional to the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux.(12-3)

4.楞次定律(正文)(暂无)

当穿过闭合的导线回路所包围面积的磁通量发生变化时,在回路中就会有感应电流,此感应电流的方向总是使它自己的磁场穿过回路面积的磁通量,去抵偿引起感应电流的磁通量的改变,或者用另一种方式来表述:闭合的导线回路中所出现的感应电流,总是使它自己所激发的磁场反抗任何引发电磁感应的原因(反抗相对运动、磁场变化或线圈变形等)。这个规律叫做楞次定律。

when the magnetic flux through the closed circuit is changing, an induced current appears in the circuit. The current always flows to create a magnetic fleld that opposes the change in the flux through the circuit. In other words, the induced current in the circuit always flows to create a magnetic field that opposes the motion (relative motion, the change of the magnetic field, of the loop being out of shape) that produced it.(12-4)

This is called Lenz′s law.(12-4)

10.感应圈  VM12-4(暂缺配音)

闭合电键K,初初线圈内就有电流通过,这时铁心因被磁化而吸引小铁锤M,使之与螺钉D分离,于是电路被切断,铁心的磁性就消失,这时,小铁锤M在弹簧片的弹力作用下又重新和螺钉D相接触,电路又被接通。初级线圈中电流不断地变化,这样通过互感就在次级线圈中产生感应电动热。

VM12-4

The structure of the induction coil is shown in Fig M12-4. when the switch K is closed There is s current produced in the primary coil. Then the magnetized iron core will attract the iron hammer M.M is seperated from the screw D. so the circuit is cut off.

The magnetism of iron core disappears. Because of the elastic force of the piece of spring, the iron hammer M will come into contact with the screw D again. The circuit is put through again. The current in the primary coil is always changing. By means of mutual induction. There is inducted emf produced in the secondary coil. Because of the inter mittence of the equipment, the circuit of the primary coil will automate ly be cut off or put through over and over again. Because the number of the turns of the secondary coil are more than that of the primary coil, there can be high voltage of a few ten-thousand volts in the secondary coil. There is a electric phenomenon between A and B.(12-10)
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